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H5N1 avian influenza in a cat, France


As the current (and unprecedented) H5N1 avian flu outbreak continues, there’s ongoing threat of transmission to other species. The extent of spread to mammals is hard to say since it’s hard to know how many wild mammals have been infected. However, we know that an impressive range of species have been infected. Spread to mammals is a concern because the more widely this virus spreads, the more chance for recombination with other flu viruses to create a ‘new’ strain that could cause serious problems in humans or other species.

A recent report from France and the corresponding WOAH report are light on details but describe H5N1 infection in a domestic cat in France from late 2022.

The cat lived on a duck farm and was euthanized after developing severe neurological disease. That’s a clinical presentation that’s not been uncommon in mammals that have been diagnosed during this outbreak. That doesn’t mean this virus usually causes neurological disease. It might be a matter of animals with neuro disease being more likely to be noticed and/or tested.

Anyway, H5N1 avian influenza infection was identified, and the virus recovered from the cat had “genetic characteristics of adaptation to mammals.”

The good news is that cats (as far as we know) don’t have their own flu virus in circulation (unlikely dogs, horses, pigs…). That makes it unlikely that a cat would be infected with avian flu and another flu strain, conditions that create the potential for recombination. However, it’s still a concern since cats can (rarely) be infected with various flu strains from other species, including human flu viruses.

Overall, the relevance here is mainly for the cat. Odds of this directly signalling a new problem are low but it highlights the concerns we have about how far this virus continues to spread. It’s playing with fire.

The other dynamic here is the potential for cats to act as a bridge from wildlife to humans. Cats that get infected through exposure to wild birds can bring the virus into closer contact with people than would have otherwise been present. It’s another good reason to keep cats indoors whenever possible, particularly if avian flu is circulating.


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